Bolboschoenus and Bulbostylis of Arkansas

(including numerous synonyms such as Bolboschoenus paludosus, Schoenoplectus fluviatilis, Scirpus fluviatilis, Scirpus maritimus, Scirpus maritimus L. var. paludosus, and Scirpus paludosus).

Revised March 5, 2008

This page present two genera in alphabetical order.

Bolboschoenus of Arkansas: an annotated list

Bolboshcoenus robustus represents this genus in Arkansas. Smith (1988, 1994) recognized B. fluviatilis (as Scirpus fluviatilis (Torr.) Gray) as possible in northeastern Arkansas, based on Steyermark (1963). Yatskievych (1999) provides a discussion of synonyms and distribution, with keys to possible Arkansas species.

Bolboschoenus fluviatilis (Torr.) Sojak (River Rush)

Synonyms: (Schoenoplectus fluviatilis (Torr.) M. Strong; (Scirpus fluviatilis (Torr.) A. Gray); (Scirpus maritimus L.)

Possible in northern Arkansas based on Missouri distribution (Yatskievych 1999) and North American distribution (Kartesz 1999).

Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) (Salt Marsh Clubrush)

Synonyms: (Bolboschoenus paludosus (A. Nelson) R. Soo); (Scirpus maritimus L. var. paludosus (A. Nelson) Kukenthal); (Scirpus paludosus A. Nelson)

Known in every state west of the Mississippi, except Arkansas (Kartesz 1999).

Bolboschoenus robustus (Pursh) Sojak (Seacoast Clubrush)

Synonym: (Scirpus robustus Pursh).

Known from two locations in Union County. The species prefers saline coastal sites and seems to appear here at roadside sites as a result of saline water pulled up by oil wells.

Bulbostylis of Arkansas: an annotated list

Smith (1994) and the Arkansas Flora Committee (2000) both recognize two species of Bulbostylis in the state. I discuss several species in adjoining states, as well as varieties, below. Eighty to 120 species, widely distributed in tropical and warm-temperature retions of both the northern and southern hemispheres (Yatskievych 1999). Some authors have treated the genus as part of Fimbristylis or as Stenophyllus. Kral (1971) and Tucker (1987) provided reasons for maintaining the genus separately as Bulbostylis.

Keys to the Arkansas Bulbostylis can be found using both E. B. Smith (1994), for species, and Diggs, et al. (1999) for varieties.

Bulbostylis barbata (Rottb.) C. B. Clarke (Water-grass)

Gulf coastal states from Texas to Tennessee and Virginia and south (Kartesz 1999). Possible in south Arkansas; details of distribution have not been reviewed.

Bulbostylis capillaris (L.) Kunth ex C. B. Clarke ssp. capillaris (Dense Tuft Hairsedge)

Synonyms: B. capillaris var. isopoda Fern. and var. crebra Fern.

This typical subspecies occurs in much of the eastern United States (Kartesz 1999). Yatskievych (1999) does not discuss subspecific taxa. For the moment (2001) I'm assuming Kartesz (1999) is correct and recognizing the Puerto Rican subspecies. Smith's atlas (1988, as modified through 1993 by Smith) shows the Miller, Nevada, and Ouachita county records as errors; two of these were apparently B. ciliatifolia, based on his unpublished revisions. That leaves (with other revisions) records by Smith (pers. commun. 1993) for 16 counties and reports from three more counties where Smith had not seen specimens. The distribution lies scattered mainly in northwest Arkansas, from Hotsprings, Pulaski, and Independence counties, with Hempstead, Craighead, and Calhoun counties as outliers.

Bulbostylis capillaris (L.) Kunth ex C. B. Clarke ssp. antilliana (Britt.) T. Koyama

This variety occurs in Puerto Rico (Kartesz 1999); as such, it is unlikely in Arkansas.

Bulbostylis ciliatifolia (Ell.) Fern. var. ciliatifolia (Capillary Hair Sedge)

We do not currently recognize this variety as occuring in Arkansas, despite the earlier reports discussed below. We base this conclusion on Hyatt's acceptance of Brent Baker's (pers. commun. 2008) report that all Arkansas material falls under the variety listed below. Kartesz (1999) flags this as the Arkansas variety of this species, probably based on Smith's report listed below. Smith (pers. commun. 1993) reported reviewing specimens for this variety from four southern Arkansas counties (Lafayette, Nevada, Ouachita, and Union). Diggs, et al. (1999) provide the key to the varieties.

Bulbostylis ciliatifolia (Ell.) Fern. var. coarctata (Ell.) Kral

The counties reported by Smith listed above (Lafa., Neva., Ouac., Unio.) and probably new collections not recorded here (Theo Witsell, pers. commun.) represent this species in Arkansas. This variety has a coastal plain distribution from Texas to Virginia, with a historic/extirpated site for Tennessee (Kartesz 1999).

Bulbostylis juncoides (Vahl) Kukenth.

Known from Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas (Kartesz 1999). Possibilities for Arkansas have not been further reviewed, but it appears unlikely in Arkansas as it is absent in Diggs, et al. (1999), the flora of north central Texas.

Bulbostylis warei (Torr.) C. B. Clarke

Reported for Mississippi, historic for Alabama and North Carolina, present in South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida (Kartesz 1999). Probably unlikely for Arkansas, based on this distribution.

References (also see main citations in Arkansas Carex treatment)

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A Synonymized Checklist and Atlas with Biological Attributes for the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First Edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, NC.

Kral, R. 1971. A treatment of Abildgaardia, Bulbostylis, and Fimbristylis (Cyperaceae) for North America. Sida 4:57-227.

Tucker. 1987. see Carex treatment for reference.

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